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Sexual Orientation

Sexual Orientation and Transgender (LGBTQ): It is illegal to discriminate against employees because of their sexual orientation or gender identity.  According to the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act (Title VII) covers discrimination against LGBTQ employees, as allegations of discrimination based on sexual orientation necessarily state a claim of discrimination based on sex. The Second Circuit (NY) on February 26, 2018, held that sexual orientation (LGBTQ) is covered under Title VII, resolving a very large dispute in the Circuit about the applicability of sexual orientation under Title VII.  Sexual orientation cases are decided in the same way as sex discrimination claims. The employee must demonstrate that his/her/it etc. sexual orientation was a substantial motivating factor in the adverse decision made by the company. 

The Supreme Court just issued a ground-breaking Bostock decision making it unlawful for employers to discriminate based on a person’s sexuality or gender identity (sexual orientation and transgender (LGBTQ)). About half the states already had laws protecting LGBTQ employees, but this decision extends employment rights to all LGBTQ folks in America and opens the federal courts to them. In this quarantine Pride Month, devoid of parades and parties, the Bostock decision is certainly something to celebrate!

On the day the Bostock case was being argued (October 8, 2019), we predicted the now historic outcome in an article stating, that the Court would hold that sexual orientation discrimination and discrimination based on transgender status constitute sex discrimination under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act because adverse employment decision discriminating against the LGBTQ community are being made ‘because of the sex’ of the employee. Honestly, there was only one direction the Bostock holding could go, granting protected status under Title VII.


The decision is monumental and unpredictable for several reasons. First, it provides equal treatment to LGBTQ employees in their employment and provides tools to fight against employment discrimination. (Sexual Orientation and Transgender (LGBTQ)).  Sexual Orientation carries as equal a significance as race, national origin, and religion, under Title VII.  Second, the Supreme Court’s decision demonstrates what we have been complaining about for a long time, employment law is NOT political and should not be politicized. Employment law is bi-partisan and protects everyone.  Here, conservative justices (Gorsuch, Roberts) joined with the Court’s liberal wing (Bader-Ginsburg, Breyer, Sotomayor, and Kagan) to expand Title VII protections to a whole new class of employees.  We are all equal under Title VII, contrary to the current popular media depiction that as a country we are inherently unequal and divided during this election season.


The Bostock decision involves three separate cases with almost identical facts and different outcomes. Frankly, advocates could not have dreamed up the perfect test cases for securing LGBTQ employment rights if they tried. They each involve long-term employees who were fired from their jobs after their employers learned they were homosexual or transgender and for no other reason. They involve both public and private employers.

Gerald Bostock worked for Clayton County, Georgia, as a child welfare advocate for more than a decade. The county won national awards for the work he did leading the department. When influential members of the community made disparaging remarks about Mr. Bostock’s participation in a gay softball league, he was fired for conduct unbecoming a county employee. The Eleventh Circuit dismissed his case, holding that Title VII of the Civil Rights Act does not prohibit employers from firing employees for being gay.

Donald Zarda was a skydiving instructor with Altitude Express in New York. After several years with the company, Mr. Zarda mentioned to a female student that he was 100% gay to allay any discomfort she may have felt about their tandem jump. She was going to be extremely close to Mr. Zarda, strapped to the front of his body. Days later, he was fired. The Second Circuit held that Title VII prohibited employers from firing an employee for being gay.  Mr. Zarda died before his case reached the Supreme Court and his estate continued his legal battle.

Aimee Stephens worked for R.G. & G. R. Harris Funeral Homes in Garden City, Michigan for six years. During her tenure, she presented as male. When she informed her employer that she planned to live and work full-time as a woman upon her return from an upcoming vacation, the funeral home fired her saying, this is not going to work out. The Sixth Circuit’s decision was consistent with the Second Circuit: Title VII prohibited employers from firing an employee for being transgender. Ms. Stephens died last month, yet her estate carried her fight to fruition.


Justice Gorsuch, who wrote the opinion for the 6-3 decision, wrote:

An employer violates Title VII when it intentionally fires an individual employee based in part on sex. It doesn’t matter if other factors besides the plaintiff’s sex contributed to the decision. And it doesn’t matter if the employer treated women as a group the same when compared to men as a group. If the employer intentionally relies in part on an individual employee’s sex when deciding to discharge the employee, put differently, if changing the employee’s sex would have yielded a different choice by the employer, a statutory violation has occurred. Title VII’s message is simple but momentous: “An individual employee’s sex is not relevant to the selection, evaluation, or compensation of employees.”

An individual’s homosexuality or transgender status is not relevant to employment decisions. That’s because it is impossible to discriminate against a person for being homosexual or transgender without discriminating against that individual based on sex.

At the bottom, these cases involve no more than the straightforward application of legal terms with plain and settled meanings. For an employer to discriminate against employees for being homosexual or transgender, the employer must intentionally discriminate against individual men and women in part because of sex. That has always been prohibited by Title VII’s plain terms” and that should be the end of the analysis.

(Sexual Orientation and Transgender (LGBTQ)).


Sexual Orientation and Transgender (LGBTQ): If you are an LBGTQ employee and believe you are experiencing unfair treatment at work, we have the following strategies your employer may not want you to know about.  First, very quietly write down your factual narrative in chronological order on a computer you do not use or access for work.  Writing out your story is part of the investigative process that lawyers use to determine liability and how we advise clients. If you are getting the sense you are being set up for a performance improvement plan (PIP) or termination, your employer and their employment attorneys are already examining and trying to control your factual narrative, but they will never tell you that. Second, quietly gather all offending and supportive emails, text messages, slack messages, etc., and preserve them.  The content of these documents should appear in your factual narrative in some form. Third, do not tell your supervisor or HR that you have potential claims until you speak to an employment attorney in our office.  Your supervisor and HR personnel do not represent you and work only against you on behalf of the employer.  They will always deny this fact. Third, you need to decide if you are going to remain employed or seek a severance package from the employer.  We have an obligation to keep you employed for as long as possible for your income purposes. More importantly, you may be able to gather corroborating or direct evidence of discrimination by remaining employed; your employer will not predict you are secretly investigating them and trying to set them up. Yes, you can do that.  Fourth, you never want to quit your job as you cannot collect unemployment benefits and it is more difficult to demonstrate a constructive discharge (i.e. anyone would leave under similar circumstances and file a charge).  Fifth, after we put your case together, we will then place the employer on notice that it is discriminating against you because of your sexual orientation and attempt to negotiate your exit package.  Sixth, avoid litigation at all costs, due to the expense and time involved; yes lawyers do give that sort of advice and we do it every day.

We have had many Sexual Orientation and Transgender (LGBTQ) claims over the past twenty-four years, including several complicated transgender cases. We are more than familiar with all of the employer’s strategies and we can quickly assess the liability in your case.  For more information please contact our Employment Attorneys in New York, Connecticut, and nationwide at Carey & Associates, P.C. at 203-255-4150 or send an email to

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Mark and his team at Carey & Associates are incredibly knowledgeable about Employment Law and have walked me through every step of the way. Their approach and guidance has been extremely effective in dealing with my case. They instill a sense of confidence by laying out the facts, caselaw, and risk assessment to help make well informed decisions. I would highly recommend them to anyone looking for an Employment Attorney.


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